Mayonnaise is an oil-in-water emulsion which can contain up to 80% oil. Gums and thickeners such as starches are used in low fat products to replace the viscosity and bulking effect of the oil, to enhance mouth feel, and to ensure that a stable emulsion is formed.
Large scale production is normally carried out using plant specifically designed for mayonnaise manufacture. This process is often semi-automated. For R&D, pilot scale and small scale production typical of the “ready to use” market – sandwich producers, caterers and other low-volume applications – mayonnaise needs to be produced in a manner which allows much more flexibility, especially when changing formulae.
The Process of Mayonnaise Making
A typical mayonnaise manufacturing process would be as follows:
• In the first stage of mayonnaise production, the egg, which may be used in either liquid or powder form is dispersed into the water. This acts as the emulsifying agent.
• Remaining continuous phase ingredients are then added and mixed until dispersed and hydrated.
• The oil is added as rapidly as the continuous phase will take it up. This results in a dramatic rise in product viscosity as the emulsion is formed.
The Problems of Traditional Mayonnaise Making Machine
The mayonnaise making process is subject to a number of difficulties, many of which can be exacerbated by operator error:
• Continuous phase ingredients are only a small proportion of the total formulation, but they perform vital functions. The mayonnaise mixer must be capable of dispersing and hydrating these properly in a relatively low liquid volume. If the egg and other emulsifying agents are not properly dispersed and hydrated, the emulsion can break during the oil addition stage.
• Hydration of stabilizers and thickeners is one of the most difficult mixing operations. In some cases the solution has to be agitated for a long period to complete hydration. Agglomerates can easily form; these cannot be broken down by agitation alone.
• Due to the high proportion of oil in the recipe the emulsion can break if the oil is not added to the continuous phase correctly. This is very difficult to control when the oil addition is carried out manually.
• Oil phase droplets must be reduced to the smallest size possible to maximize the surface area of oil within the continuous phase to ensure a stable emulsion. This is not readily achieved without specialized mayonnaise making equipment.
• Aeration must be minimized or eliminated to ensure maximum product shelf life.
The Solution of Mayonnaise Production
Ginhong has developed a mayonnaise making machinery for the ready to use market, R&D and pilot scale production. The unit is capable of carrying out the entire mayonnaise production process, including rapid preparation of premixes, hydration of thickening and stabilizing agents and preparation of the final oil-in-water emulsion. Operation is as follows:
Water is circulated from the manufacturing vessel through the system by the specially designed inline mixer. The egg (either powder or liquid) is added to the vessel and in the case of powder, is rapidly wetted out and dispersed into the high velocity liquid stream.
The remaining aqueous phase ingredients are then added to the vessel or via the powder feed hopper depending on batch size and powder characteristics. Mixing continues until the ingredients are fully dispersed and hydrated.
The oil is added to the hopper. When the valve is opened it is drawn into the aqueous phase at a controlled rate. The aqueous and oil phase ingredients then pass directly into the work head of the high shear mixer where they are subjected to intense high shear. This finely disperses the oil into the aqueous phase, immediately forming an emulsion. The vinegar (and lemon juice) is added together with the last of the oil.
Recirculation of the product continues to ensure a uniform consistency as the viscosity rises. After a short recirculation period the mayonnaise manufacturing process is completed and the finished product is discharged.
The Advantages of Ginhong Mayonnaise Manufacturing Equipment
• Ideal for small batches that are intended for immediate use.
• Aeration is minimized.
• The system practically eliminates operator error.
• Offers the batch-to-batch consistency and stability of mayonnaise manufactured in turnkey plant without the high capital expenditure.
• Yield of raw materials is maximized, as thickening agents are fully hydrated and other ingredients are correctly dispersed.
• The system is designed for handling high viscosity mayonnaise without the need for additional pumps or auxiliary equipment.
• Easily adapted to variations in product type and recipe.
Large Scale Mayonnaise Manufacture
Ginhong high shear mixers can also be used for large scale manufacture of mayonnaise. A typical process would be as follows:
Two inline mixers can be used installed in series, the first mixing the aqueous phase with part of the oil. The remainder of the oil is added before the second inline high shear mixer. All liquids are fed by metering pumps. High production levels (>5Tonnes/hour) can easily be achieved.