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How does a centrifugal pump work?

October 24, 2013

First of all, what is a centrifugal pump? It is a mechanical tool that makes use of its own component, a rotating impeller, to increase the speed of a liquid material within a piping system. A typical impeller is similar to the propeller; however, it does have any blade. The component is built in the centrifugal pump, and one of the main forces that moves any fluid.

Overview of pump history

The first centrifugal pump was created and used in 1475. It was also documented in the writings of the famous scientist Francesco di Giorgio Martini. It was not until the latter part of the 1600 that modern and more efficient pumps are developed by Denis Papin.

How the pump operates

Normally, this special pump is used together with a liquid piping system. Some of the applications on which this equipment is utilized are manufacturing, water treatment, food processing, and environment.

The force coming from the pump is created via the potent rotational kinetic energy that’s sourced from the electric motor. As the impeller of the pump makes a series of rotation, it creates the necessary energy that makes the liquid become attracted toward the central part of the impeller, after which the liquid is forced out again. Such pressure results in an increased amount of pressure downstream within the pipe, which forces the liquid to flow.

During the process of pumping the liquid, there is a need to slow down the flowing action. In order to realize this, resistance should be present. When the casing of the centrifugal collects the fluid and controls the flow, what occurs is that the kinetic energy is slowed down. Eventually, it is converted to pressure energy. What must be remembered is that pressure is a total measurement of the resistance of fluid flow. It is not a force created by the pump.

Pump heads

There are times when discharges coming from the pump are directed in an upward position. During such conditions, the fluid is pumped upwards to a determined height. Such height is known as shut-off head; it is actually a limited measurement gathered from the impeller of the pump and the pump’s rotational speed itself.

Different types of pump heads

The types of pump heads of a centrifugal pump are total static, dynamic lift, static suction, total dynamic, static discharge, static lift, and dynamic suction. The measurement of the pump head is obtained in either metric or imperial method. One can take sure measurements via the local hardware store. With any of these pump heads; fluids are pumped at similar heights. This is true as long as the centrifugal pump’s shaft puts out a significant level of effort.

When changing the liquid in the centrifugal pump, the only change to be made is the required amount of power. In order to find out the exact amount of power needed when changing fluids is by checking the fluid’s specific gravity. If the fluid possesses high specific gravity, this requires more power so that it is able to obtain the determined height.

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